Archived from the original on October 8, Donation Kontakt Wikipedia Wikimedia Danmark GLAM. Archived from the original on October 1,
Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Senator Joe McCarthy. Retrieved August 4,
19/07/ · McCarthyism / The "Red Scare". Senator Joseph R. McCarthy was a little-known junior senator from Wisconsin until February when he claimed to possess a list of card-carrying Communists employed in the U.S. Department of State. From that moment Senator McCarthy became a tireless crusader against Communism in the early s, a period.
There were many effects by McCarthyism but not so many causes. McCarthyism affected the whole nation by accusing many people and ruining their lives just cause of Joseph McCarthy’s paranoia towards communism and started making many people in America paranoid as well.
John Wayne: Communist Obsession Emanuel Levy
Nov 13, 2006 · In 1944, Wayne decided to join a group of actors, writers, and directors as a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPA). It was established with the explicit goal of fighting the leftist movement in the movie colony. Among its founders were: Jim McGuiness, MGM's production head (the organization started at an informal meeting in his house ...
McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late s to the mid to late cooldevice.eu term gets its name from U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican of cooldevice.eu period of McCarthyism is also referred to as the Second Red cooldevice.eu happened at the same times as increased fears of Communist influence on Estimated Reading Time: 50 secs.
McCarthyism usually uncountable , plural McCarthyisms. Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary. English Wikipedia has an article on: McCarthyism. German: Blockwartmentalität f. This list was first made public in , when it included 78 groups. At its longest, it comprised organizations, of them identified as Communist.
FBI director J. Edgar Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents.
This was a major assignment that led to the number of agents in the bureau being increased from 3, in to 7, in Hoover's sense of the communist threat and the standards of evidence applied by his bureau resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs. In many cases, they were not even told of what they were accused.
Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC.
From to , the FBI operated a secret " Responsibilities Program " that distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers, and others.
Many people accused in these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process. The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on communists, including burglaries, opening mail, and illegal wiretaps.
The office of this organization was burgled by the FBI at least 14 times between and The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to disrupt communist and other dissident political groups. In , Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute communists. In March , McCarthy had initiated a series of investigations into potential infiltration of the Agency by communist agents and came up with a list of security risks that matched one previously compiled by the Agency itself.
At the request of CIA director, Allen Dulles , President Eisenhower demanded that McCarthy discontinue issuing subpoenas against the CIA. Documents made public in revealed that the CIA, under Dulles' orders, had broken into McCarthy's Senate office and fed disinformation to him in order to discredit him and stop his investigation from proceeding any further.
Formed in and known as the Dies Committee, named for Rep. Martin Dies , who chaired it until , HUAC investigated a variety of "activities", including those of German-American Nazis during World War II. The committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion.
HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. These men, who became known as the " Hollywood Ten ", cited the First Amendment 's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the committee's questions.
This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Two of them were sentenced to six months, the rest to a year. In the future, witnesses in the entertainment industries and otherwise who were determined not to cooperate with the committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination.
William Grooper and Rockwell Kent , the only two visual artists to be questioned by McCarthy, both took this approach, and emerged relatively unscathed by the experience. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with communist affiliations. After many of the charges were rejected by a federal judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in McCarthy headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in and , and during that time, used it for a number of his communist-hunting investigations.
McCarthy first examined allegations of communist influence in the Voice of America , and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers , etc.
McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a brigadier general , led to the Army—McCarthy hearings , with the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nationwide television audience.
While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity. On November 25, , the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten, Eric Johnston , president of the Motion Picture Association of America , issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers, and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.
At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or which, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations.
At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser.
These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities, and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists.
Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.
Efforts to protect the United States from the perceived threat of communist subversion were particularly enabled by several federal laws. Hundreds of communists and others were prosecuted under this law between and Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were convicted under the Smith Act in in the Foley Square trial. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years.
The defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and given prison sentences. Many were convicted on the basis of testimony that was later admitted to be false. The McCarran Internal Security Act , which became law in , has been described by scholar Ellen Schrecker as "the McCarthy era's only important piece of legislation"  the Smith Act technically antedated McCarthyism.
However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the U. Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible communist-action and communist-front organizations so they could be required to register. Due to numerous hearings, delays, and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in and This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country.
The Communist Control Act of was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey , the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of , and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies.
The act was successfully applied only twice. The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights. In addition to the federal laws and responding to the worries of the local opinion, several states enacted anti-communist statutes.
By , several states had enacted statutes against criminal anarchy , criminal syndicalism , and sedition; banned from public employment or even from receiving public aid, communists and "subversives"; asked for loyalty oaths from public servants, and severely restricted or even banned the Communist Party. In addition, six states had equivalents to the HUAC. Some of these states had very severe, or even extreme, laws against communism. In , Michigan enacted life imprisonment for subversive propaganda; the following year, Tennessee enacted the death penalty for advocating the violent overthrow of the government.
Municipalities and counties also enacted anti-communist ordinances: Los Angeles banned any communist or "Muscovite model of police-state dictatorship" from owning arms and Birmingham, Alabama , and Jacksonville, Florida , banned any communist from being within the city's limits.
McCarthyism was supported by a variety of groups, including the American Legion and various other anti-communist organizations. One core element of support was a variety of militantly anti-communist women's groups such as the American Public Relations Forum and the Minute Women of the U. These organized tens of thousands of housewives into study groups, letter-writing networks, and patriotic clubs that coordinated efforts to identify and eradicate what they saw as subversion.
Although right-wing radicals were the bedrock of support for McCarthyism, they were not alone. A broad "coalition of the aggrieved" found McCarthyism attractive, or at least politically useful. Common themes uniting the coalition were opposition to internationalism, particularly the United Nations ; opposition to social welfare provisions , particularly the various programs established by the New Deal ; and opposition to efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the United States.
One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of public health services, particularly vaccination , mental health care services, and fluoridation , all of which were denounced by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. William F. Buckley Jr. In addition, as Richard Rovere points out, many ordinary Americans became convinced that there must be "no smoke without fire" and lent their support to McCarthyism.
McCarthy himself was a Catholic. He had very little support among union activists and Jews. Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of communism, and American communists in particular.
Proponents of McCarthyism claimed that the CPUSA was so completely under Moscow's control that any American communist was a puppet of the Soviet intelligence services. This view is supported by recent documentation from the archives of the KGB  as well as post-war decodes of wartime Soviet radio traffic from the Venona Project ,  showing that Moscow provided financial support to the CPUSA and had significant influence on CPUSA policies.
This attitude was not confined to arch-conservatives. Passages of the CPUSA constitution that specifically rejected revolutionary violence were dismissed as deliberate deception. Various historians and pundits have discussed alleged Soviet-directed infiltration of the U. Estimating the number of victims of McCarthy is difficult. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.
For the vast majority, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous. The hunt for "sexual perverts", who were presumed to be subversive by nature, resulted in over 5, federal workers being fired, and thousands were harassed and denied employment. Homosexuality was classified as a psychiatric disorder in the s. The McCarthy hearings and according "sexual pervert" investigations can be seen to have been driven by a desire to identify individuals whose ability to function as loyal citizens had been compromised.
Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port-security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination.
As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly 3, seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone. Some of the notable people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism include:.
In , Robert K. Murray, a young professor of history at Pennsylvania State University who had served as an intelligence officer in World War II, was revising his dissertation on the Red Scare of —20 for publication until Little, Brown and Company decided that "under the circumstances The University of Minnesota press published his volume, Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, — , in The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be associated with McCarthyism.
The many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism included many figures not generally noted for their liberalism. For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of , President Truman wrote, "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have. In , after he left office, Truman criticized the current Eisenhower administration:. I am not referring to the Senator from Wisconsin.
He is only important in that his name has taken on the dictionary meaning of the word. It is the corruption of truth, the abandonment of the due process law. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security.
It is the rise to power of the demagogue who lives on untruth; it is the spreading of fear and the destruction of faith in every level of society. On June 1, , Senator Margaret Chase Smith , a Maine Republican, delivered a speech to the Senate she called a " Declaration of Conscience ".
In a clear attack upon McCarthyism, she called for an end to "character assassinations" and named "some of the basic principles of Americanism: The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought". She said "freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America", and decried "cancerous tentacles of 'know nothing, suspect everything' attitudes".
Ives , Charles W. Tobey , Edward John Thye , George Aiken , and Robert C. Hendrickson —joined Smith in condemning the tactics of McCarthyism. On one occasion he warned that many local anti-communist movements constituted a "general attack not only on schools and colleges and libraries, on teachers and textbooks, but on all people who think and write In , the Supreme Court upheld a lower-court decision in Adler v.
Board of Education , thus approving a law that allowed state loyalty review boards to fire teachers deemed "subversive". In his dissenting opinion, Justice William O. Douglas wrote: "The present law proceeds on a principle repugnant to our society—guilt by association What happens under this law is typical of what happens in a police state. Teachers are under constant surveillance; their pasts are combed for signs of disloyalty; their utterances are watched for clues to dangerous thoughts.
On October 20, , Murrow's show See It Now aired an episode about the dismissal of Milo Radulovich , a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists. The show was strongly critical of the Air Force 's methods, which included presenting evidence in a sealed envelope that Radulovich and his attorney were not allowed to open. On March 9, , See It Now aired another episode on the issue of McCarthyism, this one attacking Joseph McCarthy himself.
Titled "A Report on Senator Joseph R. In his concluding comment, Murrow said:. We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We will not walk in fear, one of another. This broadcast has been cited as a key episode in bringing about the end of McCarthyism. In April , McCarthy was also under attack in the Army—McCarthy hearings.
These hearings were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company network, allowing the public to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics.
In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch , that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies. In an exchange that reflected the increasingly negative public opinion of McCarthy, Welch rebuked the senator: "Have you no sense of decency, sir?
At long last, have you left no sense of decency? In the mid and late s, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments heavily contributed to the decline of McCarthyism. Its decline may also be charted through a series of court decisions.
A key figure in the end of the blacklisting of McCarthyism was John Henry Faulk. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, Inc. Marked by AWARE as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused.
Although some informal blacklisting continued, the private "loyalty checking" agencies were soon a thing of the past. Much of the undoing of McCarthyism came at the hands of the U. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren. Brennan, Jr. The Warren Court made a series of rulings that helped bring an end to the McCarthyism.
In , the Warren Court heard the case of Slochower v. Board of Education. The court prohibited such actions, ruling " Young ruling also greatly weakened the ability to discriminate in the federal civilian workforce.
Another key decision was in the case Yates v. United States , in which the convictions of fourteen Communists were reversed. In Justice Black's opinion, he wrote of the original "Smith Act" trials: "The testimony of witnesses is comparatively insignificant. Also in , the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Watkins v. United States , curtailing the power of HUAC to punish uncooperative witnesses by finding them in contempt of Congress. Justice Warren wrote in the decision: "The mere summoning of a witness and compelling him to testify, against his will, about his beliefs, expressions or associations is a measure of governmental interference.
And when those forced revelations concern matters that are unorthodox, unpopular, or even hateful to the general public, the reaction in the life of the witness may be disastrous.
In its decision in Kent v. Dulles , the Supreme Court halted the State Department from using the authority of its own regulations to refuse or revoke passports based on an applicant's communist beliefs or associations. The political divisions McCarthyism created in the United States continue to make themselves manifest, and the politics and history of anti-communism in the United States are still contentious.
Portions of the massive security apparatus established during the McCarthy era still exist. Loyalty oaths are still required by the California Constitution for all officials and employees of the government of California which is highly problematic for Quakers and Jehovah's Witnesses whose beliefs preclude them from pledging absolute loyalty to the state.
In The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism , author Haynes Johnson compares the "abuses suffered by aliens thrown into high-security U. Cole has written that the Patriot Act "in effect resurrects the philosophy of McCarthyism, simply substituting 'terrorist' for 'communist'".
From the opposite pole, conservative writer Ann Coulter devotes much of her book Treason to drawing parallels between past opposition to McCarthy and McCarthyism and the policies and beliefs of modern-day liberals, arguing that the former hindered the anti-communist cause and the latter hinder the War on Terrorism.
Stone ,  Ted Morgan ,  and Jonah Goldberg. McCarthyism also attracts controversy purely as a historical issue. Through declassified documents from Soviet archives and Venona project decryptions of coded Soviet messages, the Soviet Union was found to have engaged in substantial espionage activities in the United States during the s.
In the view of some contemporary commentators, these revelations stand as at least a partial vindication of McCarthyism. The opposing view holds that, recent revelations notwithstanding, by the time McCarthyism began in the late s, the CPUSA was an ineffectual fringe group, and the damage done to U. Since the time of McCarthy, the word McCarthyism has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil and political rights in the name of national security, and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism.
The novel The Troubled Air by Irwin Shaw tells the story of the director of a fictional radio show, broadcast live at the time, who is given a deadline to investigate his cast for alleged links to communism. The novel recounts the devastating effects on all concerned. The Arthur Miller play The Crucible used the Salem witch trials as a metaphor for McCarthyism, suggesting that the process of McCarthyism-style persecution can occur at any time or place.
The play focused on the fact that once accused, a person had little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. The film The Front starring Woody Allen dealt with the McCarthy-era Hollywood blacklist. Guilty by Suspicion is a American drama film about the Hollywood blacklist, McCarthyism, and the activities of the HUAC. Written and directed by Irwin Winkler, it starred Robert De Niro , Annette Bening , and George Wendt.
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Main article: House Un-American Activities Committee. See also: Smith Act trials of communist party leaders. See also: List of films by the Hollywood Ten , Hollywood blacklist , and Lavender scare. Larry Adler , musician Nelson Algren , writer  Lucille Ball , actress, model, and film studio executive. Successfully challenged Landrum—Griffin Act provision  Esther Brunauer , forced from the U. Du Bois , civil rights activist and author  George A.
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Senator Joseph McCarthy , a Republican of Wisconsin. The period of McCarthyism is also referred to as the Second Red Scare. It happened at the same times as increased fears of Communist influence on American institutions, espionage by Soviet agents such as the Rosenbergs, heightened tension from Soviet control over Eastern Europe, the success of the Chinese Communist revolution and the Korean War - There is a play called 'The Crucible' which is about the beginning of the Salem witch trials but also McCarthyism.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
MACCARTHYSME - YouTube
machisme, macrocosme, macchabée, machiste. " Maccarthysme ": examples and translations in context. Expulsé des Etats-Unis en pleine période de Maccarthysme, il trouva refuge dans cet éden suisse dont il était tombé amoureux. Expelled from the United States at the height of McCarthyism, he found refuge in this Swiss paradise he had fallen. McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late s to the mid to late cooldevice.eu term gets its name from U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican of cooldevice.eu period of McCarthyism is also referred to as the Second Red cooldevice.eu happened at the same times as increased fears of Communist influence on. maccarthysme definition in French dictionary, maccarthysme meaning, synonyms, see also 'mac-carthysme',maccarthisme',maccarthyste',maccartisme'. Enrich your vocabulary with the .
Le maccarthysme à l'oeuvre
Den amerikanske senator Joseph McCarthy Ravel Phenex i offentligt mistanke om omfattende kommunistisk infiltration af den amerikanske statsadministration. Baggrunden for mccarthyismen var dels Den Kolde Krigs udvikling med bl.
George Clooney Maccarthysme i filmen Good Night, and Good Luck som Maccarthysme CBS -journalisten Edward R. Wikimedia Commons har flere filer relateret til Mccarthyisme. Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown.
ISBN The Maccarthysme Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan. Blacklisted: The Film Lover's Guide to the Hollywood Blacklist. ISBN X. The Autobiography of Maccarthysme. International Publishers. The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience.
Columbia University Press. BNF : cbt data Maccarthysme : ph Kategorier : USA's politik USA under den kolde krig. Navnerum Artikel Diskussion. Donation Kontakt Wikipedia Wikimedia Danmark GLAM. Lav Maccarthysme bog Download som PDF Udskriftsvenlig udgave. Wikimedia Commons.
Autoritetsdata BNF : cbt data Maccarthysme : ph